Sikhism names 10 Sikh gurus as the founders of Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that emphasizes doing good throughout life. Spanning nearly 250 years, from the birth of Guru Nanak Dev in 1469, to the life of Guru Gobind Singh. The tenth human Guru, Guru Gobind Singh bequeathed his title of guru to the Sikh scriptures, the holy book of Sikhism known as Guru Granth.
The founders of Sikhism had one main mission, to teach the world the importance of equality and the belief that all religions worship the same true God.
Sikhism is a religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in the late 15th century AD. One of the youngest religions and the fifth-largest organized religion in the world, it has around 25 to 30 million followers.
Sikhs regard the 10 gurus of Sikhism as the embodiment of a guiding light that is passed from each guru to his successor. That guiding light now resides in the script known as Siri Guru Granth Sahib. This title step is known as Gurgaddi. Let’s look at the Gurus of Sikhism, their timeline and contribution.
Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Nanak Dev, the first of the 10 gurus, founded the Sikh faith and introduced the concept of one God. He was born into a Hindu family in Punjab (an area that is now in Pakistan, but was part of India at the time). At the age of 13, he rejected the Sacred Thread ceremony, which is the initiation ceremony that Hindu children go through when they are initiated into the Hindu faith. This framework is the first step in creating a faith other than Hinduism.
He was formally appointed a guru in 1499 at the age of 30. He died in Kartarpur, Pakistan, on September 7, 1539, at the age of 69.
Guru Angad Dev
Guru Angad Dev compiled the writings of Nanak Dev and introduced the Gurmukhi script.
The second guru was born in Harike, India, on March 31, 1504, became guru on Sept. 7, 1539, and died in Khadur, India, on March 29, 1552, two days from 48 years old.
Guru Amar Das
Guru Amar Das, the third of the 10 gurus, repudiated the caste with the institution of langar, pangat and sangat.
He became the third guru in Khadur, India, on March 26, 1552, and died in Goindwal, India, on September 1, 1574, at the age of 95.
Guru Raam Das
Guru Ram Das began the excavation of the Sarovar in Amritsar, India.
He became the fourth guru in Goindwal, India, on September 1, 1574, and died at Goindwal on September 1, 1581, at the age of 46.
Guru Arjun Dev
Guru Arjun (Arjan) Dev erected the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, India, and compiled and contributed to Adi Granth in 1604.
He was appointed the fifth guru in Goindwal on September 1, 1581, and died in Lahore, Pakistan, on May 30, 1606, at the age of 43.
Guru Har Govind
Guru Har Govind (Hargobind) built the Akal Takhat. He formed an army and used two swords that symbolized secular and spiritual authority. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir imprisoned the guru, who negotiated the release of whoever could cling to his robe.
He was declared the sixth guru in Amritsar, India, on May 25, 1606, and died in Kiratpur, India, on March 3, 1644, at the age of 48.
Guru Har Rai
Guru Har Rai, the seventh of the 10 gurus, propagated the Sikh faith, maintained a cavalry of 20,000 as a personal guard, and established a hospital and zoo.
He was appointed the seventh guru in Kiratpur on March 3, 1644 and died in Kiratpur on October 6, 1661 at the age of 31.
Guru Har Krishan
Guru Har Krishan became a guru at the age of 5. Born in Kiratpur, India, on July 7, 1656, and was the son of Guru Har Rai and Mata Kishan (also known as Sulakhni).
He became a guru on October 6, 1661, and died of smallpox in Delhi, India, on March 30, 1664, at the age of 7. Holding the shortest tenure of all the gurus.
Guru Teg Bahadar
Guru Teg Bahadar, ninth of the 10 gurus, was reluctant to give up meditation and present himself as a guru. Ultimately, he sacrificed his life to protect Hindu pandits from forced conversion to Islam.
He became a guru in Baba Bakala, India, on August 11, 1664, and died in Delhi, India, on November 11, 1675, at the age of 54.
Guru Gobind Singh
Gobind Singh, the tenth guru, created the Khalsa order. He sacrificed his father, mother, children and his own life to protect Sikhs from forced conversion to Islam. He completed the Granth, granting him the title of Eternal Guru.
Tenth and last human named Guru in Anandpur, India, on November 11, 1675, and died in Nanded, India, on October 7, 1708, at the age of 41.
Guru Granth Sahib
Siri Guru Granth Sahib, the sacred scripture of Sikhism, is the last and eternal Guru of Sikhs. He was inaugurated as a guru in Nanded, India, on October 7, 1708.
Many people ask why the 10th Guru Gobind Singh did not pass the title on to his descendants, as they had been doing all this time.
The Gurgaddi was given to Guru Granth Sahib Ji because the synthesis and formation of religious principles, and jurisprudence of the Sikh faith was concluded and completed during the life of the 10th human Guru. There was nothing left to add to the faith, and to transmit the teachings to the generations through an eternal source, inherently infallible and incorruptible, everything pointed to a scripture rather than a physical being. The Guru Granth Sahib Ji is the Guru ad perpetuam.
It was destined to be, and that even Guru Ram Das Ji, who arrived many years before Guru Gobind Singh Ji or even before the completion of the first Sikh scripture, the Adi Granth, proclaimed in his teachings that, “The word of the Guru is in fact the Guru … “or” Bani Guru Guru Hai Bani … “Therefore, it was the most logical and destined thing to do.
It is also important to understand the social landscape by which Sikhism lived and in which it was found. The religions of the world were against a religion that gives man power over God. E Christianity, Hinduism and Islam, as the population grows, the infrastructure improves, the country’s default religion grows. Having so much power, it was normal that many Hindus will want to destroy everything that threatens their system of religious government.
The 10 gurus of the Sikh have had an extraordinary work throughout their lives, a man can be killed and buried, but an idea is difficult to eradicate.
You can download the Guru Granth Sahib, the book of Sikhism in PDF format in Spanish from the link below.